Family: Vitaceae
Genus: Vitis
Botanical name: Vitis vinifera Linnaeus, 1758
Sanskrit: Draksha, Mrudvika, Gosthana, Svaduphala, Amritaphala, Karavi
Hindi: Dakh, Drak
English: Grape wine, Wine grape
Malayalam: Muntiri
Muntiri is a liana growing to 35 yards tall, with flaky bark. The leaves are alternate, palmately lobed, 5–20 cm long and broad. The fruit is a berry, known as a grape; in the wild species it is 6 mm diameter and ripens dark purple to blackish with a pale wax bloom; in cultivated plants it is usually much larger, up to 3 cm long, and can be green, red, or purple (black). The species typically occurs in humid forests and streamsides.
Muntiri are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, and can be crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green, orange and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines. Grapes are typically an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid.
The Fruits, Leaves, Stems and Flowers are used for anemia, skin diseases, jaundice, vomiting, blood circulation problems and eye problems (eye strain). Grape seed has also been used as a source of antioxidants and essential fatty acids to protect against heart disease.
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